Chronology of events: 1673--1692

For some events, the year is certain but the month and day are not. Example: We know only the year for the collections of Leeuwenhoek's letters published in Dutch during his lifetime.

For other events, the season or month are certain but the day is not. Example: Leeuwenhoek mentions that someone visited him "last month".

On the other hand, many events did indeed happen on the first day of a month. Example: public appointments to Delft's city offices took effect on January 1 of each year. Thus:

  • A date of January 1 in a given year may indicate that the year is certain but the month and day are not.
  • A date of 1 in a given month may indicate that the year and month are certain but the day is not.

Unless otherwise indicated, for events in England, the date given is Old Style, 10 days behind the Dutch Republic's New Style until 1700 and then 11 days behind.

Date
January 1, 1685 cousin Maerten Huijchs Leeuwenhoek appointed tax farmer
January 5, 1685 Wrote Letter 43 of 1685-01-05 (AB 82) to Members of the Royal Society
January 17, 1685 The Royal Society read the latter part of Letter 42 of 1684-07-25
January 23, 1685 Wrote Letter 44 of 1685-01-23 (AB 83) to Members of the Royal Society
January 31, 1685 The Royal Society read the former part of Letter 43 of 1685-01-05 about salts in vinegar and wine
February 7, 1685 The Royal Society read and discussed the latter part of Letter 43 of 1685-01-05
February 13, 1685 Visited by Thomas Molyneux on behalf of the Royal Society
March 30, 1685 Wrote Letter 45 of 1685-03-30 (AB 84) to Members of the Royal Society
April 4, 1685 The Royal Society read the former part of Letter 44 of 1685-01-23 about salts in wormwood, alum, and other substances
May 9, 1685 The Royal Society read the part of Letter 44 of 1685-01-23 about oil of tartar, potash, and camphor
May 16, 1685 The Royal Society read the latter part of Letter 44 of 1685-01-23 about salts in ashes, lime, soda, and sal armoniac
May 28, 1685 The Dublin Philosophical Society asked the Royal Society for a copy of Letter 44 of 1685-01-23 on salts of wine and vinegar
May 31, 1685 Maria Duyst van Voorhout married Frederik Adriaan van Reede van Renswoude
June 20, 1685 The Royal Society read part of Letter 45 of 1685-03-30 about the role of eggs and male sperm in a female dog
June 22, 1685 Visited by John Locke
June 27, 1685 The Royal Society read the latter part of Letter 45 of 1685-03-30 about sperm and eggs in sheep and rabbits
July 2, 1685 sister Catharina Leeuwenhoek appointed as tax collector for three years
July 11, 1685 cousin Adriaen Lambrechts Leeuwenhoek appointed curator
July 13, 1685 Wrote Letter 46 of 1685-07-13 (AB 85) to Members of the Royal Society about reproduction of trees, transfer of nutrients, male and female trees, hazelnut, comparison of reproduction of mammals with the reproduction of plants, cross-breeding, and germinati
July 22, 1685 At age 52, his 25th publication in Philosophical Transactions
July 24, 1685 Anthonie Heinsius wrote to Leeuwenhoek about Robert Boyle's request for an examination of cochineal
August 10, 1685 Wrote letter of 1685-08-10 (AB 86) to Anthonie Heinsius
August 21, 1685 Anthonie Heinsius wrote to Leeuwenhoek about Robert Boyle's reaction to the letter about cochineal
August 27, 1685 editor Edmond Halley did not publish any letters by Leeuwenhoek in Philosophical Transactions from 1685 to 1693
September 21, 1685 Wrote letter of 1685-09-21 (AB 87) to Anthonie Heinsius
October 6, 1685 Visited by Karl von Hessen-Kassel and Willem Meester
October 12, 1685 Wrote Letter 47 of 1685-10-12 (AB 88) to Members of the Royal Society about the beginning of plants in seeds; chyle, sweat, about skin, optic nerve, and bile of fish; salts in beer vinegar and lemon juice; and spirits mixed with blood and wine vinegar
November 14, 1685 The Royal Society read and discussed Letter 46 of 1685-07-13 about reproduction of trees, comparison of reproduction of mammals with the reproduction of plants, and cross-breeding
December 1, 1685 Visited by De Saingermain, who later called Leeuwenhoek a "Magus"
December 17, 1685 Constantijn Huygens wrote to Leeuwenhoek about root trees
December 25, 1685 cousin Elisabeth Maertens Leeuwenhoek married Dirck van Schie
January 1, 1686 Published Cinnaber Naturalis (Natural Cinnabar), Letters 48 - 52
January 1, 1686 Published Levende Dierkens (Living Animals), Letters 28 - 31, 34 - 36
January 1, 1686 Sat for his oil portrait by artist Johannes Verkolje (1650-1693)
January 22, 1686 Wrote Letter 48 of 1686-01-22 (AB 89) to Members of the Royal Society
January 23, 1686 The Royal Society read part of Letter 47 of 1685-10-12 about embryo plants in cotton seeds
February 6, 1686 The Royal Society elected Edmond Halley as clerk
March 2, 1686 Edmond Halley wrote a letter to Leeuwenhoek reviewing his recent "ingenious and curious communications"
March 12, 1686 Thomas Gale replied for the Royal Society about objections to an earlier letter
March 13, 1686 The Royal Society read part of Letter 47 of 1685-10-12 about chyle, sweat, pores of the skin, the crystalline humour of the eye, and the optic nerve
March 16, 1686 Antonio Magliabechi wrote to Leeuwenhoek, a "most courteous and agreeable letter"
March 20, 1686 The Royal Society read part of Letter 47 of 1685-10-12 about gall and the scales and slime of fish
March 27, 1686 The Royal Society ordered that the unread part of Letter 47 of 1685-10-12 be read at the next meeting
April 2, 1686 Wrote Letter 49 of 1686-04-02 (AB 90) to Members of the Royal Society about the structure of bone, the bark of trees, skin and scales, the moisture evaporating from his body, and a little peeling piece of skin
April 3, 1686 The Royal Society asked Francis Lodwick to translate Letter 48 of 1686-01-22 about cinnebar and gunpowder
April 10, 1686 The Royal Society read and discussed Letter 48 of 1686-01-22 about cinnebar and gunpowder
April 14, 1686 Wrote letter of 1686-04-14 (AB 91) to Antonio Magliabechi
April 24, 1686 The Royal Society ordered that Letter 49 of 1686-04-02 be translated
May 1, 1686 The Royal Society read part of Letter 48 of 1686-01-22 about the particles composing cinnabar
May 8, 1686 The Royal Society read another part of Letter 48 of 1686-01-22 about gunpowder explosions and cannon lengths
May 14, 1686 Wrote Letter 50 of 1686-05-14 (AB 92) to Members of the Royal Society about gall-nuts found on oak trees and the germination of plants
May 25, 1686 Edmond Halley wrote a letter to Leeuwenhoek about a gift from the Royal Society and requesting some portraits
May 29, 1686 The Royal Society decided to send a gift to Leeuwenhoek
June 5, 1686 The Royal Society read part of Letter 49 of 1686-04-02 about bone and wood
June 8, 1686 Bought a burial section in the Oude Kerk
June 10, 1686 Wrote Letter 51 of 1686-06-10 (AB 93) to Members of the Royal Society about seeds of cotton, kapok, Bupariti, and coconuts, the reproduction of shrimp and lobster, and the eggs of shell fish
June 26, 1686 The Royal Society officers declared their satisfaction with election of Edmond Halley
July 10, 1686 The Royal Society read part of Letter 51 of 1686-06-10 about how the leaves, root, and stem are wrapped up with the seeds
July 10, 1686 Wrote Letter 52 of 1686-07-10 (AB 94) to Members of the Royal Society about the growth and durability of wood felled in different seasons and countries, the annual growth rings, and how wooden barrels can be watertight
July 11, 1686 Jacob Gronovius wrote to Leeuwenhoek about how his letters were received in Italy
July 17, 1686 The Royal Society ordered that Letter 52 of 1686-07-10 be translated
September 7, 1686 Examined silkworm eggs
September 10, 1686 Wrote letter of 1686-09-10 (AB 95) to Daniël Papenbroek
October 30, 1686 Wrote letter of 1686-10-30 (AB 96) to Antonio Magliabechi
November 5, 1686 Visited by Jacob Gronovius
January 1, 1687 cousin Maarten Pieters Hogenhouck (1650-1720) appointed to Veertigraad, served 1687-1720
January 1, 1687 Published Vervolg der Brieven (Continuation of the Letters), Letters 53 - 60
January 1, 1687 Published Anatomia Seu Interiora Rerum (Interior Anatomy), Letters 43, 42, 38
January 1, 1687 Published Anatomia Seu Interiora Rerum (Interior Anatomy), 19 Letters from 28 - 52
January 11, 1687 cousin Magdaleentje (Helena) Maertens Leeuwenhoek married Barent van Frijtom
March 1, 1687 Wrote letter of 1687-03-01 (AB 97) to James II, King of England
March 28, 1687 mentor Constantijn Huygens died
April 4, 1687 Wrote Letter 53 of 1687-04-04 (AB 98) to Members of the Royal Society about the structure of the teeth of elephant, pig, humans, ox, and horse and about toothache
April 5, 1687 Guarantor for Johan Francisco de Raet when he became a citizen of Delft
April 16, 1687 The Royal Society ordered that Letter 53 of 1687-04-04 be translated
April 23, 1687 The Royal Society read part of Letter 53 of 1687-04-04 about the structure of teeth
May 7, 1687 The Royal Society read the latter part of Letter 53 of 1687-04-04 about the teeth of various animals
May 9, 1687 Wrote Letter 54 of 1687-05-09 (AB 99) to Members of the Royal Society about the structure of 'stone' of the medlar and the coffee bean and acid in plants
May 14, 1687 The Royal Society read and discussed part of Letter 54 of 1687-05-09 about embryo plants in seeds
June 4, 1687 The Royal Society read and discussed part of Letter 54 of 1687-05-09 about coffee
June 11, 1687 cousin Adriaen Lambrechts Leeuwenhoek admitted as notary
June 13, 1687 Wrote Letter 55 of 1687-06-13 (AB 100) to Members of the Royal Society
June 18, 1687 The Royal Society read part of Letter 50 of 1686-05-14 about gall nuts
July 11, 1687 Wrote Letter 56 of 1687-07-11 (AB 101) to Members of the Royal Society
August 6, 1687 Wrote Letter 57 of 1687-08-06 (AB 102) to Members of the Royal Society
September 9, 1687 Wrote Letter 58 of 1687-09-09 (AB 103) to Members of the Royal Society about ant eggs, larvae and its development, feeding, sting, cocoon and nest
October 7, 1687 Appointed curator of the insolvent estate of Evert van der Sijde
October 17, 1687 Wrote Letter 59 of 1687-10-17 (AB 104) to Members of the Royal Society
November 24, 1687 nephew Johannes Adriaans Swalmius married Magdelena van Mierop
November 26, 1687 The Royal Society read part of Letter 58 of 1687-09-09 about the generation of ants
November 28, 1687 Wrote Letter 60 of 1687-11-28 (AB 105) to Members of the Royal Society about his discovery that cochineal was an insect and his experiments with cinchona bark
December 3, 1687 The Royal Society read and discussed the latter part of Letter 58 of 1687-09-09 about the generation of ants
December 11, 1687 The Royal Society ordered that Letter 60 of 1687-11-28 be translated
January 1, 1688 Published Vervolg der Brieven (Continuation of the Letters), Letters 53 - 60 (2nd)
April 2, 1688 printer-bookseller Hendrik van Cronevelt bought the house next door
May 25, 1688 Wrote Letter 61 of 1688-05-25 (AB 106) to Members of the Royal Society
July 6, 1688 Wrote Letter 62 of 1688-07-06 (AB 107) to Members of the Royal Society
August 3, 1688 Wrote Letter 63 of 1688-08-03 (AB 108) to Members of the Royal Society
August 24, 1688 Wrote Letter 64 of 1688-08-24 (AB 109) to Members of the Royal Society
September 7, 1688 Wrote Letter 65 of 1688-09-07 (AB 110) to Members of the Royal Society
September 23, 1688 Wrote letter of 1688-09-23 (AB 111) to Melchisedec Thevenot
November 1, 1688 Published Den Waaragtigen Omloop des Bloeds (On the True Circulation of Blood), Letter 65
January 1, 1689 Published Tweede Vervolg der Brieven (Second Continuation of the Letters), Letters 61 - 67
January 1, 1689 Published Continuatio Epistolarum (Continuation of the Letters), Letters 53-60
January 12, 1689 Wrote Letter 66 of 1689-01-12 (AB 113) to Members of the Royal Society
January 12, 1689 Wrote letter of 1689-01-12 (AB 112) to Robert Boyle
March 6, 1689 Christiaan Huygens wrote to Leeuwenhoek about other places to see the circulation of blood
April 1, 1689 Did not write any letters between 1689 04-01 and 1691 09-18
April 1, 1689 Wrote Letter 67 of 1689-04-01 (AB 114) to Members of the Royal Society
April 23, 1689 Appointed guardian of the children of Jacob Bellart
May 27, 1689 Anthonie Heinsius became Grand Pensionary of the States of Holland
June 21, 1689 nephew Adriaan Johannes Swalmius baptized, witnessed by Antony and Cornelia
October 19, 1689 cousin Adriaen Lambrechts Leeuwenhoek married Eva Jacobs Overschie
March 6, 1690 Christiaan Huygens wrote to Leeuwenhoek about liquids in glass balls and Iceland crystal
April 3, 1690 cousin Maarten Lambrechts Leeuwenhoek married Margareta Pieters van Limburg
April 17, 1690 daughter Maria made a will
September 7, 1690 Bought the other part of the garden outside the walls of the city
January 1, 1691 Published Onsigtbare Verborgentheden (Invisible Mysteries), Letters 38, 42, 43 (2nd)
March 2, 1691 Gottfried Leibniz wrote to Christiaan Huygens praising Leeuwenhoek
September 11, 1691 William Stanley wrote to Leeuwenhoek that the members of the Royal Society "wish their services to be presented to me"
September 18, 1691 Wrote letter of 1691-09-18 (AB 115) to Antonio Magliabechi
November 27, 1691 Wrote Letter 68 of 1691-11-27 (AB 116) to Members of the Royal Society
December 2, 1691 mentor Cornelis 's Gravesande died
December 5, 1691 mentor Cornelis 's Gravesande buried
December 6, 1691 brother-in-law Jan Jacobs de Molijn buried
January 1, 1692 William Molyneaux wrote about a visit to Leeuwenhoek
January 4, 1692 Wrote Letter 69 of 1692-01-04 (AB 117) to Members of the Royal Society
January 13, 1692 niece Geertruijt Jans de Molijn inherited property from her father Jan Jacobs
February 1, 1692 Wrote Letter 70 of 1692-02-01 (AB 118) to Members of the Royal Society
February 1, 1692 Robert Hooke called Leeuwenhoek the microscope's "single votary"
February 2, 1692 Richard Waller wrote to Leeuwenhoek about his recent observations and the structure of grass
March 7, 1692 Wrote Letter 71 of 1692-03-07 (AB 119) to Members of the Royal Society
March 19, 1692 Reimbursed for purchase of distilled water and wine
April 22, 1692 Wrote Letter 72 of 1692-04-22 (AB 120) to Richard Waller
June 24, 1692 Wrote Letter 73 of 1692-06-24 (AB 121) to Members of the Royal Society
July 22, 1692 Christiaan Huygens began second series of observations of microbes replicating and expanding on Leeuwenhoek's
August 12, 1692 Wrote Letter 74 of 1692-08-12 (AB 122) to Members of the Royal Society
September 16, 1692 Wrote Letter 75 of 1692-09-16 (AB 123) to Members of the Royal Society
September 23, 1692 Wrote letter of 1692-09-23 (AB 124) to Mary, Queen of Great Britain
October 20, 1692 Christiaan Huygens wrote to Leeuwenhoek about spontaneous generation and praised his work and diligence

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