Antonio Magliabechi wrote Letter L-344 to Leeuwenhoek with reports on several recent books that he thought might be of interest written in Latin and Italian by Italians

June 1, 1698

No manuscript is known.

In this letter, Magliabechi tells L. that he should not reimburse the man in Brussels for delivering a book from Magliabechi to L. Magliabechi also reports on several recent books that he thought might be of interest to L. and the Dutch readers of Rabus’s Boekzaal. The books were written in Latin and Italian by Italians Dominico La Scala, Matteo Giórgi, Michaelangelo Fardella, Lorenzo Lucchesini Lucchese, and Gaspare Carpegna and by the Portuguese Steven a Nivibus Cardeira. In addition, Magliabechi reports on a book commemorating the death of Catalina de Aragón.

The text below is that of editor Pieter Rabus’s sometimes loose translation in De Boekzaal van Europe, which regularly published “Italiaansch Boeknieuws”, excerpts from letters by Magliabechi to Leeuwenhoek. Rabus printed only the book news. This letter is the ninth of the eleven letters with book news published in ten Boekzaal articles from March 1693 to October 1699.

The man who lives in Brussels is Johan Arnoldi. See Letter L-333 of 15 January 1698 from Arnoldi to Leeuwenhoek.



What is known about the rest of this letter comes from Leeuwenhoek’s Letter L-346 of 14 August 1698 to Antonio Magliabechi

The Reverend Papenbroek personally handed me your very kind letter, most illustrious sir, at the time when recently, during my stay at Antwerp, I was given an opportunity to enjoy his company and his most learned conversations. From this letter I see that you do not by any means advise me to reimburse the man in question, who lives at Brussels, in any way for the expenses he says he has incurred in getting the book (with which you recently saw fit to make me happy).

Further, most illustrious sir, I would urgently request you to take no further pains to inquire any more about the vicissitudes or events relating to the book. Indeed, I quite realize, after due consideration of everything, that those to whom this matter had been entrusted have not acted very honestly and that not everything has happened in the way they allege; nor had this escaped my notice before the payment of a gold coin, which they call pistolet, had been exacted from me through a skipper (who at once brought a receipt from Brussels, in order that the payment should not be deferred).

Nevertheless I yet paid that money, when claimed in this way, with the greatest pleasure, as do those who, in order to procure some treasure, spare no expenses, however great, to possess the thing they covet so much.

“Italiaansch Boeknieuws”, De Boekzaal van Europe, September and October, pp. 374-78. Copied and pasted from Collected Letters, vol. 20, "this volume" in the footnotes.

Italian Book News from a letter recently written by Mr. A. Magliabechi to Mr. A. Van Leeuwenhoek[1].


Clava Pontificia, seu Auctoritas in Conciliis tum generalibus, tum provincialibus, cum scholiis in aliquas Decretales in de emanantes. Auctore Stephano a Nivibus Cardeira, Lusitano S. palat. Aulaeque Lateran. Comite & Equite. Philosophie Baccalaureo J. V. D. In celeberrimo Archigymnasio Patavino Juris Caesarei Professore Ordinario.

That is,

The Pontifical club, or [the Pope’s] authority in the assemblies of the Church, both in general and in particular regions, with notes on certain decrees resulting therefrom, written by Steven a Nivibus Cardeira[2], Portuguese, count and knight of the holy palace and court of the Lateran, bachelor of philosophy, R. G., and at the university in Padua professor of the imperial law. In Padua by Steven Spera in Deo 1697 in 4.


Phlebotomia damnata a Dominico la Scala Messanenst. Sive Anidii, Chrypppi-Cnidii, Asclepiadis, Erasistrati, & Aristogenis contra sanguinis missionem doctrina, e vetustatis tenebris in lucem sibi debitam revocata & luculentius enucleata, juxta leges motus humorum in orbem. In qua singula rationum momenta, que sanguinis ductionis adversantur, aequa veritatis lance expenduntur. Patavii ex typogr. fratrum Sardi.

That is,

Bloodletting rejected by Dominikus La Scala[3], Messinese. Or the doctrine of Anidius, Chrysippus Cnidos, Asclepius, Erasistratus, and Aristogenes[4] against blood draining, brought forth from the darkness of antiquity into the light due to it, and studied more widely according to the laws of the circulation of fluids. Wherein all reasons that conflict with bloodletting are considered in the just scale of truth. At Padua by the Sardi brothers 1697 in 4.


Against the same is published

Phlebotomia liberata, sive Apologia pro sanguinis missione in febribus, aliisque morbis magnis, qua respondetur Dominico La Scala Messanensi. Accedit de febribus Disserationis prodromus in- Epistola ad Paulum Franciscum Bruni. Opus Matthei Georgii PatritiiAlbinganensis, & Medici.

That is,

Bloodletting defended, or a vindication for draining the blood in fevers, and other severe illnesses, in which Dominikus La Scala is contradicted. In addition, a forerunner of a discourse about fevers in a letter to Paulus Franciskus Bruni. A work by Mattheus Georgius[5], of the councilors of the Albenger stamme, doctor. In Genoa 1697 by G. A. Casamatta in 4.


The same Mattheus Georgi has published his letter in Genoa, titled

Saggio della nuova Dottrina di Renato Des Cartes.

That is,

An essay on the new doctrine of René Descartes. What it has come up against. Lettera del sign. Michel Angelo Fardella, Professore di Astronomia e Meteore nello studio di Padoua all’ ill. ed erud sign. Antonio Magliabechi Bibliotecario del sermo. Gran Duca di Toscana. In cui brevemente s’essaminano, erigettano le op pozizzioni proposte contro i principii della Filoso fia Cartesiana dal dot. sign. Matteo Giorgi nella sua epistola, detta saggio della nuova dottrina di Renato Cartesio.


A letter from Mr. Michael Angelo Fardella[6], professor of astronomy and meteors at Padua, to the very learned Mr. Antonio Magliabechi, library overseer of the illustrious grand duke of Tuscany, where the objection made against the principles of Cartesian philosophy by the most learned Mr. Mattheus Giorgi, in his letter titled Essay on the new doctrine of René Descartes is briefly examined and rejected. In Venice by Girolamo Albrizzi 1697. in 8.


Father Laurens Lucchesini[7], Jesuit, published in Rome from the print shop of the Apostolic Chamber. Saggio Della Sciocchezza di Nicolo Machiavelli, &s. Essay on the absurdity of Niklaas Machiavel, being 20 lessons on the principles of Solomon’s proverbs. 1697. in 4.

Oktavius ​​Ferrari[8], in his lifetime professor at Padua, had intended to make a present of the defense of Machiavelli, written by Scioppius[9], to Mr. Magliabechi, that is, the manuscript of Scioppius himself, which has meanwhile fallen into the hands of God knows who by the heirs of the said Ferrari. Now we know only copies of the original that Scioppius himself wrote, augmented, and corrected. I mention this because I am informed from good hands from Italy that Scioppius, it is believed in Italy, prepared the reported defense of Machiavelli at the order of Pope Urban VIII. Fine!


There are tidings from Naples that a book was made there in fol. in memory of Donna Katharina D'Aragona[10], mother of the present viceroy. In addition to many arrangements in change of languages, there are mainly four funeral speeches. The first Greek by Mr. Karel Rossi[11]: the second Latin by Mr. John de Vico[12]: the third Italian by Mr. Emanuel Ceradelli[13]: the fourth Spanish by Father Noviega[14], Franciscan.


In Rome the commemorative medals of Cardinal Karpegna[15] are published[16].


[1] Magliabechi’s previous letter to L. is Letter L-337 of March 1698, in this volume.

[2] Steven a Nivibus Cardeira, also Estevao das Neves Cardeira, is not further identified.

[3] Dominico La Scala (1632-1697) of Messina founded a school to reconcile the doctrines of the ancient Greek authorities with the contemporary ideas of Paracelsus and van Helmont. He opposed bloodletting.

[4] Chrysippus of Soli (279 – c. 206 BC) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. Asclepius was a god of medicine in ancient Greek mythology. Erasistratus (c. 304 – c. 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and physician. Aristogenes (fl. 3rd century BC) was a Greek physician and either servant or pupil of Chrysippus. Anidius is not identified.

[5] Matteo Giórgi (1650-1728) from Albenga was a critic of the Cartesian doctrine.

[6] Michaelangelo Fardella (1650-1718) was an Italian friar and professor of philosophy at the university in Modena and professor of astronomy at the university in Padua who supported the spread of Descartes’s philosophy in Italy.

[7] Giovanni Lorenzo Lucchesini (1638-1716) was an Italian Jesuit who taught literature and philosophy at the Roman College. The book referred to is Saggio della sciocchezza di Nicolò Macchiavelli scoperta eziandio col solo discorso naturale, e con far vedere dannose anche a gli interessi della terra le principali sue massime, in venti lezzioni sacre sopra il principio de’ proverbij di Salomone, nel qual si mostra esser le regole fondamentali della politica veramente giovevole anche a’ vantaggi temporali (An essay on the absurdity of Nicolò Macchiavelli, discovered also with natural speech alone, and by showing his principal maxims harmful even to the interests of the earth, in twenty sacred lectures on the principle of Solomon’s proverbs, in which the fundamental rules are shown to be of the policy which is really beneficial also to the temporal advantages) published in Rome, in the print shop of the Reverenda Camera Apostolica, 1697.

[8] Ottavio Ferrari (1607-1682) theologian was an Italian archeologist also known for his work in philology.

[9] Kaspar Schoppe (1576-1649, also Gasparis Scioppius) was a German scholar who took the side of Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) in the ongoing controversy about his ideas. Pope Urban VIII (1568-1644, born Maffeo Vincenzo Barberini) was pope from 1623 to his death in 1644. He opposed the ideas of Copernicus and ordered Galileo to stand trial for espousing them. See Almási, “Rehabilitating Machiavelli: Kaspar Schoppe with and against Rome”.

[10] Doña Catalina de Aragón Folch de Cardona and Córdoba (1635-1697), the ninth duchess of Segorbe, was the mother of Luis Francisco de la Cerda (1660-1711), ninth duke of Medinaceli, and eleven other children. The book is Pompe funerali celebrate in Napoli per l’eccellentissima signora d. Caterina d’Aragona e Sandovale, duchessa di Segorbia, Cardona, &c: con l’aggiunta di altri componimenti intorno al medesimo soggetto: dedicate all’eccellentissimo suo figlio d. Luigi della Cerda, duca di Medina-Celi, &c., vicerè e capitan generale nel regno di Napoli (Funeral procession celebrated in Naples for the most excellent lady Caterina d’Aragona and Sandovale, Duchess of Segorbia, Cardona, & c: with the addition of other compositions on the same subject: dedicated to her excellent son Luigi della Cerda, duke of Medina-Celi, &c., viceroy and captain general in the kingdom of Naples), published in Naples by Giuseppe Roselli in 1697. The four speeches are followed by a dozen pages of emblems and almost two hundred pages of poems from over seventy poets.

[11] Caroli Rossi is not further identified.

[12] Giambattista Vico (1668-1744), an Italian philosopher and historian, was a professor of rhetoric at the university in Naples from 1699-1741.

[13] Emanuele Cicatelli (1651-1703) was an Italian priest who was appointed bishop of Avellino and Frigento in 1700.

[14] Franciscan Benito Noriega (1650-1708) was appointed bishop of Acerra in 1700.

[15] Gaspare Carpegna (1625-1714) was an Italian Catholic cardinal with an extensive collection of coins and medals. The book referred to is Osservazioni istoriche sopra alcuni medaglioni antichi (Historical observations on some ancient medallions), written with Filippo Buonarroti and published in Rome in 1698.

[16] Magliabechi’s next letter to L. is Letter L-350 of late 1698, in this volume.